A bunion develops when the joint at the base of the big toe becomes swollen and most likely painful. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons suggests these ways to ease bunion pain. Make sure shoes fit properly and comfortably, and mold to the shape of your feet. Opt for shoes with a soft sole, wide toe box and wide instep. Avoid heels of more than 2 1/4 inches, those that are too tight, and shoes with pointy, narrow toes. To accommodate a bunion, wear shoes that are a bit big, or have your shoes professionally stretched. Place a protective cushioned pad over the bunion.
Bunions are sometimes genetic and consist of certain tendons, ligaments, and supportive structures of the first metatarsal that are positioned differently. This bio-mechanical anomaly may be caused by a variety of conditions intrinsic to the structure of the foot, such as flat feet, excessive flexibility of ligaments, abnormal bone structure, and certain neurological conditions. These factors are often considered genetic. Although some experts are convinced that poor-fitting footwear is the main cause of bunion formation, other sources concede that footwear only exacerbates the problem caused by the original genetic structure. Bunions are commonly associated with a deviated position of the big toe toward the second toe, and the deviation in the angle between the first and second metatarsal bones of the foot. The small sesamoid bones found beneath the first metatarsal (which help the flexor tendon bend the big toe downwards) may also become deviated over time as the first metatarsal bone drifts away from its normal position. Arthritis of the big toe joint, diminished and/or altered range of motion, and discomfort with pressure applied to the bump or with motion of the joint, may all accompany bunion development. Atop of the first metatarsal head either medially or dorso-medially, there can also arise a bursa that when inflamed (bursitis), can be the most painful aspect of the process.
Bunions may or may not cause symptoms. A frequent symptom is foot pain in the involved area when walking or wearing shoes that is relieved by resting. A bunion causes enlargement of the base of the big toe and is usually associated with positioning of the big toe toward the smaller toes. This leads to intermittent or chronic pain at the base of the big toe. Bunions that cause marked pain are often associated with swelling of the soft tissues, redness, and local tenderness. It is important to note that, in post-pubertal men and post-menopausal women, pain at the base of the big toe can be caused by gout and gouty arthritis that is similar to the pain caused by bunions.
People with bunions may be concerned about the changing appearance of their feet, but it is usually the pain caused by the condition that leads them to consult their doctor. The doctor will evaluate any symptoms experienced and examine the affected foot for joint enlargement, tissue swelling and/or tenderness. They will also assess any risk factors for the condition and will ask about family history. An x-ray of the foot is usually recommended so that the alignment of big toe joint can be assessed. This would also allow any other conditions that may be affecting the joint, such as arthritis, to be seen.
Non Surgical Treatment
Most of the time, non-surgical (conservative) treatment can control the symptoms of a foot bunion or bunionette. These include. Appropriate Footwear, changing to wide fitting footwear reduces the pressure on the big toe and prevents shoes from rubbing on the bony lump. When possible, go barefoot Toe stretchers are a really simple way to reduce foot bunion pain. Toe Stretchers, wearing toe spaces that fit in-between the toes help to stretch the muscles and ligaments around the toes, improving the alignment and relieving pain. Find out more about how these work in the Toe Stretcher section. Painkillers, your doctor may prescribe or recommend over-the-counter medication to reduce the pain and inflammation. Foot bunion correctors can be worn in your shoe to help realign your foot if you suffer from foot bunions. Orthotics. There are a number of over-the-counter shoe inserts that can help relieve symptoms. Bunion correctors work by realigning the bones in your foot to reduce pressure on the affected toe. There are both day-time and night-time splints on the market, although the evidence of their effectiveness is lacking. Ice. Applying ice packs to the foot can help reduce pain and inflammation. Bunion pads help to reduce any friction on your big toe. Bunion Pads. You can also get protective foot cushions that sit over the skin to prevent the hallux abducto valgus rubbing on your shoes.
Recent advances in surgical techniques have led to very high success rates for bunion surgery. In most cases the patient can walk immediately after surgery without crutches. As well most patients find the surgery to be virtually pain free. Almost all bunion surgery is done as an outpatient at a surgery center. Most bunion surgery is performed with a local anesthetic block and IV sedation (twilight sleep). After the procedure you will be moved to the recovery room for about an hour. You will then be ready to go home.